Style Sheets


  • Full points should be used in abbreviations.
  • It is preferable to use full words.
    • ‘for example’ rather than ‘e.g.’
    • ‘that is’ instead of ‘i.e.’
    • ‘and so on’ instead of ‘etc.’
    • ‘namely’ instead of ‘viz.’









et al.

  • No full points should be used in upper-case abbreviations such as ‘US’ or ‘UK’.
  • People’s initials are spaced and followed by a full point.
    • For example: A. A. Milne
  • Abbreviated units of measurement do not have full points and do not take a final ‘s’ in the plural.
  • Use two-letter abbreviations for US states in references and bibliography.
    • For example: Cambridge, MA not Cambridge Mass.
    • If in doubt, check the list in Butcher’s Copy-editing (and as these are highly eccentric, please err on this side).

See also: Contractions

Accents and diacritics

  • Highlight all occurrences of letters with accents and diacritics, foreign characters and IPA characters.
  • List these on the Instructions to Typesetter form.

See also: Special Characters

Acts of Parliament

  • The title of the Act should have no comma between it and the year
  • Use a lower-case ‘t’ for ‘the’ before the name of the Act


  • the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

Bibliography and citation style


  • For books with three or more authors, give all of the authors’ names in the full bibliographic citation, wherever it occurs.
  • In all other citations of books with three or more authors, use surname of first author followed by ‘et al.’
  • In both short title and author-date systems, it is preferable to give details of both the publisher and place of publication. It is acceptable to leave out the place if this is a real problem to ascertain. Place names should be consistently in or consistently out, not a mixture of the two.
  • Abbreviations in bibliographies should be spelt out or explained but abbreviations for US states are acceptable.
  • Use the two-letter state abbreviation codes, preceded by a comma.
  • You only need to include the state abbreviation for places that might be confused with cities in the UK (Cambridge, Durham) or are obscure (Albany).
  • Where the author is citing a modern version of an older text, give the original date of publication in square brackets
    • For example: Burke, Edmund [1790] (1910), Reflections on the French Revolution'.
  • ‘See’ and ‘see also’ should be italicised only in the index, and not if they appear in the bibliography.


Citation Style

  • Here, there are no numbered notes, only a single list of references in a bibliography at the end of the book (in multi-author works, each chapter may have its own list of references).
  • In the body of the text, the reference should take the form:
    • ([Author Surname] [year of publication]: [page number])
    • Note: no comma between author and date.
    • For example: (Smith 1960: 59; Jones 1965: 60)
    • This refers to: ‘in Smith, 1960 edition, page 59’; and ’in Jones, 1965 edition, page 60’

Bibliography Style

  • First author’s surname must come first, followed by forename/initials.
  • Subsequent authors, and editors of volumes: forename/initial(s) then surname. Further entries under the same name or author group should repeat the name(s).
  • Be consistent in using forenames or initials, not a mixture; though make an exception if particular authors whom you cite always publish under name or always under initials.
  • When the same author has several publications in the same year, use a, b, etc. to distinguish them.
    • For example: 2012a, 2012b, not 2012, 2012a, etc.
  • Place (ed.) or (eds) before the date if the work is an edited collection.
Examples of bibliographic references using the Author–Date system
Full references to books

Bamgbose, Ayo (1991), Language and the Nation: The Language Question in Sub-Saharan Africa, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Woolf, V. (1997–9), Complete Works, ed. J. Hurst and D. Jones, 3 vols, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Full references to journal articles

Aldcroft, S. (1992), ‘As the sun rose’, Times Higher Education Supplement, 1 November 1992, pp. 17–23.

Marcus, T. (1998), ‘Short story’, Journal of Storytelling, 5: 2, 23–7. [or whatever format you choose for giving volume, issue and page numbers]

Full references to book articles

Smith, C. Ann (1991), ‘Preserving food to preserve life’, in A. Wilson (ed.), Waste Not Want Not, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 5–33.

Woolf, V. (1999), ‘To the beach’, in V. Woolf, Complete Works, ed. J. Hurst and D. Jones, Oxford: Oxford University Press, vol. 1, pp. 9–14.

Short Title

Citation Style

  • References are given in numbered notes. Short-title citations should not be given in parentheses in the text.
  • If there is a bibliography, it is not necessary to supply a full reference in the notes as the full details appear in the bibliography. The short title version, therefore, should be given in the notes for each chapter.
  • If there is no bibliography, the full reference should be given the first time the source is mentioned in the notes to each chapter. Thereafter, the short-title version should be given.
  • Use of ‘op. cit.’ should be avoided. ‘Ibid.’ can be used provided that it is unambiguous.
  • See ‘Notes’ for further information.

Bibliography Style

  • First named author’s surname comes first, followed by forename/initials in the bibliography (as opposed to the notes).
  • Subsequent authors: forename/initial(s) then surname. Further entries under the same name or author group should repeat the name(s).
  • Be consistent in using forenames or initials, not a mixture; though make an exception if particular authors whom you cite always publish under name or always under initials.
  • For books with three or more authors, all of the authors’ names should be given in the full bibliographic citation, wherever it occurs.
  • In all other citations of books with three or more authors, use surname of first author followed by ‘et al.’
Examples of bibliographic references in books using the short title system:
Full reference to a book

Croft, C. F. and Nicholas Woodward (eds), The British Economy Since 1965, 3rd edn (Basingstoke: Star Press, 1992).

Full reference to a journal article

Aldcroft, Steven, ‘As the sun rose’, Times Higher Education Supplement, 1 November 1992, pp. 17–23.

Full reference to a book article

Smith, C. Ann, ‘Preserving food to preserve life’, in C. Ann Smith (ed.), Waste Not Want Not (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993), pp. 5–33.

Subsequent references
  • After the first reference in the chapter, further references in the text of the chapter consist of the author’s surname and the title or short title
  • g. ‘Croft and Woodward, The British Economy, p. 69’.
  • Other shortened versions are acceptable provided that they are clear and that the reader will understand them.

See also: Notes


  • Keep capitals to a minimum.

When to use capitals

  • Full caps for acronyms
  • g. NATO, USA, TV.
  • Small caps are only used for bc, ad, ce (common era) and bce (before the common era).
  • Capitalise ‘Chapter’ for internal cross references.
  • Capitalise to distinguish specific from general
  • For example:
    ‘She is a professor at the University of Edinburgh.’
    ‘She is Professor of Literature at the University of Edinburgh.’
  • Capitalise initials of key words in English-language titles of books
  • See also: Bibliography and Italics


Supply a list of captions if there are any tables, figures, maps or other illustrations. Captions should be consistent and clear.

Captions usually take the form:

Figure x.x [space] The title of the figure, taking initial capital for the first word and any proper nouns. (Source: give details.)


Figure 1.3 The relationship of phonetic transcription to language. (Source: Shutterstock.)


Contractions ending with the same letter as the original word do not take a full stop













Please use the following forms:

  • Write full dates as Arabic numeral, followed by the full name of the month, followed by full year in figures
    • For example: Monday, 9 November 1996
  • In the 1930s (not '1930’s')
  • 'in the twentieth century' or 'twentieth-century literature'. See also: hyphenation
  • 1899–1901, 1900–1, 1900–10, 1910–18, 1923–4, 1989–9. See also: en and em rules

ad and bc

  • bc follows the date
  • ad precedes the date.
  • Use small caps for bc and ad. See also: Capitalisation.
  • Do not use ad from the year 500 onwards (unless it is important in the context of the book).
    • For example: 43 bc, ad 499, 632, 1984
  • If the date is approximate, indicate this with 'c.' ad and bc both follow the date
  • Add a space between the 'c.' and the number
  • Add a space between the number and ad or bc
    • For example: ‘c. 353 ad’.

Definite article

  • Normally use lower-case ‘t’ before names of associations, companies and other bodies
  • For newspapers and periodicals, follow the use of ‘the’ in the title
    • Use the following: the Daily Telegraph, the Daily Express, The Times, The Guardian, The Independent, The Scotsman, The Economist.

Drama references

  • Write ‘act III, scene ii, line 297’ as ‘III, ii, 297’.


  • Show ellipses by three evenly spaced dots on the same line, preceded by a character space and followed by a character space or by a closing quotation mark (or a closing parenthesis)
  • Avoid following ellipses with a full stop or a comma.

See also: Quotations


  • Emphasis should be achieved by the phrasing and grammar.
  • It should not be necessary to use italics or bold to show emphasis.

En and Em rules

  • Use en rules rather than em rules, unless working on a revision where em rules are already used.
  • Use un-spaced en rules between dates: 1900–1, 1900–10, 1910–18, 1923–4.
  • Use un-spaced en rules wherever the dash can be interpreted as ‘to’.
  • Spaced en rules are used for parenthetical dashes.


  • Mark as ‘EXT’ all quotations of more than 40 words; numbered lists; verse extracts of one or more lines; small tables in the text. See also: Tables.
  • All extracted quotations should begin full out left within the indented block.

Fonts and typography

  • The designer will decide upon these when the typescript has been copy-edited.
  • Attach a separate note if you want particular attention to be paid to the design of a specific section.
  • Ensure that bold and italic have been correctly marked in normal text.

Headings and Sub-headings

  • Part titles and chapter titles should be marked ‘PT and ‘CH’ respectively.
  • Subsequent headings should be marked ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’.
  • Mark ‘Contents’ etc. in Prelims, ‘Index’ in back matter as ‘MH’.
  • The hierarchy used should be as simple as possible
  • Use a maximum of 3 levels of heading.


  • Hyphenation should be kept to a minimum.
  • Hyphens are normally used for compound adjectives
  • Hyphens are not used for adverbs


  • ‘A nineteenth-century building’
  • ‘A building of the nineteenth century’
  • 'An early century building'

Internet citations

Note citation:

  1. Available at <> (last accessed 20 December 2009).

Bibliography citation:

Woods, Gaby (2004), ‘Meet Marnie … ’, The Observer, 18 July, <> (last accessed 7 December 2005).


  • Do not underline web address
  • Include access dates for all Internet citations


  • Italics should be used for foreign words, except
    • when part of a foreign-language quotation
    • when the word has been assimilated into the English language.
  • Italicise titles of newspapers, journals, plays, books, films, works of art, names of ships
  • Do not italicise the names of institutions or associations.
  • Do not italicise for emphasis. See also: emphasis.
  • Only italicise what is necessary – do not italicise surrounding punctuation.

Legal issues

  • If there is any danger of text being interpreted as libellous, err on the side of caution
  • Do not make personal criticism of living individuals without very careful consideration of the possible legal consequences.


  • All notes should appear as chapter-end notes, unless there is a specific directive to use footnotes (for example: series style).
  • Indicate notes with superscript numerals, without parentheses, outside any punctuation.
  • Do not set sequential in-text notes in tables or figures as their position may change during typesetting.
    • Label notes to tables and figures a, b, c and so on, and present them with the table or figure.
  • Avoid notes to headings
  • Where endnotes are used: insert the heading 'Notes' before the endnotes.
  • Please avoid ‘op. cit.’, ‘loc. cit.’, ‘idem’ and ‘eadem’.
  • ‘ibid.’ (note full point and no italics) can be used to refer to the immediately preceding reference, or part of it, indicated by the page number (Ibid. p. 32).
  • Do not use ‘ibid.’ if there are two references in the preceding note as this is too confusing.
  • For clarity, please give a page number each time you use ‘ibid.’, for example:
  1. Smith, The Book, p. 19.
  2. p. 19.
  3. p. 23.
  4. p. 24.

See also: Bibliography

Numbered lists

  • All numbered lists should be numbered ‘1.’, ‘2.’ and so on
  • Do not use letters or roman numerals
  • Parentheses around numbers can be used in running text [‘I saw (1) an elephant and (2) a mouse] but should not be used for note indicators or in numbered lists
  • For example: I saw
  1. an elephant
  2. a mouse

Numbering system

  • Number all figures, photographs and tables decimally by chapter, even in multi-author books
  • For example: the first table in Chapter 3 would be 3.1


  • Ranges of numbers: omit any digits that are not necessary to understanding
  • Any number in the ’teens should show both digits
    • For example: 3–6, 15–17, 23–4, 37–43, 44–101, 100–9, 105–6, 111–13, 115–17, 123–4, 137–43, 144–244.
  • Spell out numbers up to but not including 10 for technical books.
  • Spell out words up to but not including 100 for more literary texts.
  • Use commas, not spaces or full points, for large numbers.
    • For example: 6,000, 10,000.


  • Do not use lines of asterisks or other symbols to separate text.
  • Do not indent the first paragraph under a heading.
  • Do indent subsequent paragraphs.

Quotation marks

  • Use single quotation marks throughout, with double quotes for an inner quote
    • For example: 'Newman attempts to salvage the "ultimate horizon for radical politics" offered by anarchism.'
  • Displayed quotations have no quotation marks.
  • Any quotes within a displayed quote will have single quotation marks.
    • See also: Quotations.
  • A few philosophical and linguistics texts use quotation marks for different, specialist purposes. Check with the author if in doubt.
  • Be consistent in the use of curly or straight quotation marks. If authors have used a mixture, query this as there may be some logic behind it.


  • Quotations of more than 40 words should be displayed. Either indent them or type as a separate paragraph with a line space above and below.
  • Introductory ellipses should be avoided.
  • Concluding ellipses are acceptable.
  • Use original spellings. Add [sic] if necessary.
  • Capitalise quotations on an ad hoc basis according to sense.
    • If a quotation starts a new sentence, then use a capital. If it continues as part of a sentence, use lower case.
  • Sources should be indicated using superscript note indicators after the quotation, outside full stops. The source itself should then be given in a numbered note at the end of the chapter.
  • Alternatively, if the source of the quote is given at the end of the quote under the author-date system, the positioning of the source details should be immediately after the quote. If the quote is in verse form, the source details should be on the line below the quote, ranged right.

References to non-print media

Reference Films and CDs as follows:

[title in italic], [media], [director/ composer as appropriate]. [Place]: [producer], [date]

For example:

Macbeth, film, directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures, 1948

Scripture references

  • Use Arabic numerals
  • Use a colon and a space to divide chapter and verse
    • For example: 2 Cor. 12: 4

Sexist usage

  • Try not to overuse 'he and she'. Reword to avoid using pronouns in some instances.
  • Consider using the plural ‘they’ if it seems appropriate.
  • If rewording is not possible, it is preferable to use ‘he or she’, not ‘s/he’ or ‘he/she’.
  • Avoid using the word ‘Man’ to refer to the species and in stereotyped clichés
    • For example, do not say: ‘they decided he was the right man for the job’.


  • Use one character space between sentences (after the full stop), not two.
  • Close up figures and abbreviated measurements. For example: 20km, not 20 km.

Special characters

  • List all unusual or non-standard typographical features on the Typescript Delivery Form, showing exactly how they should appear.

See also: Accents and diacritics


  • Use British spellings. Use -ise, -our endings.
  • We favour the following: judgement, focused, connection, premise, medieval.


  • Should not contain anything that a typesetter cannot set using a keyboard.
  • Present tables one per page on separate sheets of paper.
  • Should be numbered decimally by chapter.
  • Indicate the ideal location on the page of a table, but please note that the typesetter may not be able to place it exactly where indicated. If this is likely to cause a problem, please indicate what would and would not be acceptable.
  • If the table has any notes, they should be indicated in the table by superscript a, b, c and so on. Do not use asterisks, daggers or other symbols. Supply the notes under the table together with source information.
    • See also: Notes
  • Please check carefully that the tables tally exactly with the text in the use of abbreviations, units of measurement and content.

Web addresses

  • Do not underline web addresses.
  • Do not include terminal punctuation, as this could confuse someone typing the address into their computer.
  • For example: